2. LAMINATED CORRUGATED IRON COMPENSATORS

The Dutép company started producing laminated corrugated iron compensators (heat expansion balancer) in 1973 first in Hungar, that has been produced continuosly by DUTERM Corporation since 1993. The function of compensators is to balance the heat expansion at a gyven – fringe upon points – hose phase. These modern hose units exceedingly replace, the conventional heat expansion balancers, so the balancers that made of hose (U-bends, „S” arches), the packing-gland and lens compensators they disadvantageous propriety are unequivocally rejected.

1. figure

Wave – frame cut.

The element of laminated corrugated iron compensators is a 18/8 chrome- nickel alloyed, austenitic, non-corrodible wave – frame. (1. figure)

The wave – frame according to the stress is prepared 1 – 18 layer, that layer thickness is 0, 2 – 0, 5 mm. The material of junctures are generally A35, A38, A45, A52 K quality. The material of junctures can be KL III. KO 33-35 quality for special request.

The wavw – frame is provided with a protection hose, that function is to prevent the lodgement and the development of turbulent flow. The material of protection hose corresponds with the material of the wave – frame

The advantages of laminated compensators against the conventional appendages:

The compensators made by us has four archetype:

The compensators made by 80 – 1000 mm nnominal diameter range and in the following pressure grade: 0,6; 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 MPa (according to the MSZ 2873).

2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STANDARD MAKE

Axial compesators

The axial compensators can only take the axial excursion. This excursion type changes, maximum until 130 mm. On the 2.figure the movement – ratio of the axial compensator can be seen. Te axial compesator can be used advantageously whwrw the wires will be near to each other, and there where the route of the is a lots of reversig, embranchment, they are on the straight of the wire.

2. figure

The movement ofthe axial compensator

3. figure

Pipe-end desing of the axial compensator

Angular compensator

Out of accordance the axial compensator the angular compensators can only take the angle excursion. It was given its name that angular or angle aompensator. The angular compensator works so the wave – frame turns into and around a stud can include a certain angle with its symmetry – axis. The angular compensator can be used advantageously where longer tube phases has to be compensated, the extension of these tube phases can be 1000 – 2000 mm.

The angular compensators can be set in with more of itself. This combination is with 2—3-4 compensators generally. The angular compensators because of their buildup gives little fix point stress, so the fix points are a lot cheaper and more material economical.

4. figure

The movement of angular compensator

5. figure

Pipe-end desing of the angular compensator

Laterál kompenzátor

A laterál kompenzátorok felépítésüknél fogva csak a tengelyükre merőleges löketek felvételére alkalmasak. Innen kapták a nevüket is. A laterál kompenzátorok alapvető eleme a kettős hullámtest, amelyeket egy közbenső cső köt össze. A két hullámtest és a közbenső cső készülhet egy darabból is.

Az oldalirányú mozgást a kompenzátor úgy valósítja meg, hogy a kompenzátor két végén elhelyezett karimákat húzórudak kapcsolják össze, amelyek gömbcsuklós felfekvésűek, ezáltal a kompenzátor egyik vége a befogottnak tekintett másik végéhez képest egy gömbfelületen mozdul.

6. figure

The movement of angular compensator

7. figure

Pipe-end desing of the lateral compensator

UNIVERSAL COMPENSATOR

The universal compensators can be compared at build-up to the lateral compensators, with that they have not got pull-rod and ball-joint. Its operation is the lateral compensators allowable displacement contemporaneous combination.

8. figure

The movement combination of universal compensator

9. figure

Universal compensator universal compensator

At the universal compensators that has to be taken to consideration that the universal compensator according to the rate given in the type schedule can have two-directionak stroke intake. But these two-directional strokes are not independent of each other. In case of maximal axial stroke the sideward stroke can be only 0, and the sme in the other case as well.

The coherence between the two sroke is given in an elips diagram, that length is the extent of axial and sideward stroke. For the practice we displace the elips diagram with a more common rhombus diagram. The rhombus diagram can be seen on the 10. figure. We made it that the lateral stroke was measure on one of the co-ordinate axis, and the axial sroke was measured on the other co-ordinate axis, conjugating them we get the rhombus diagram.

On the 10. figure the lateral sroke is 65 mm, the axial stroke is 40 mm. It can be read from the diagram that for example in case of 10 mm stoke the lateral sroke maximum 50 mm.

 

10. figure

The rhombus diagram

2.2 QUALIFICATION AND TESTING COMPENSATORS

every and each compensator is put through a massiveness examination and every tenth compensator strength test. The strength test in done by water-pressure and inner air pressure. Pressing under water examined compensator; may conclude from bubble formation the compactness.

Every compensator has quality certificate.

2.3 APPLICATION OF COMPENSATORS

generally using compensators is needed whwrw the tubes are changing their length because fluctuation, or liable to vibration. The main industrial area where compensators are used: building trade: vehicle industry; energy industry; chemical industry. In the building trade heat expansion of district-heating tubes, heat balancer for central heating and hot water pipes in flats; compensators are used strong in numbers. Variously it is applicable in the vehicle trade to balance the (high temperature) wires that exposed by heat expansion and balancing the vibration in the engine. Apart from this compensators can be fit in the exhauster system of diesel engines, before the blower of turbo engines. In the energy industry the compensators are well applicable, they can be utiliezed in different gas- and steam turbine tubes. In the chemical industry they are used to balance the high temperature, agressive chemical agent, gas, steam tubes.

2.4 CHOOSING COMPENSATORS

A kompenzátorok kiválasztásához, illetve a csővezetékekbe történő bevezetéséhez a következő adatokra van szükség:

For choosing compensators and setting in tubes the following information are needed:

The different types of compensators can be foud in the type schedule. Here are given the setting in and building in information as well. Coosing the compensator type depends on basically the extent of sroke and the tracing of tube, apart from this the local facility has to be taken to consideration.

Individual compensator types can be combined with others, in particular the axial with the lateral, or with the angular, lateral with angular. Where there is no feasibility to heavily stabilize the tubes, or when only small counter-effect has to be taken, for example turbine, diesel engines, the length changing has to be balanced with ball-joint (lateral) and angle compensator (angular).

Building in compensators

Duration of life

In the compensator type schedule the given sroke rates belong to 1000 total binal stroke duration of life. The 1000 total binal stroke duration of life the corrugated iron assures until 120 ºC. Depending on the material of corrugated iron the compensators can be used until 400ºC or 600ºC, but in this case adjustment calculations must be made.

Adjustment calculations:

Stroke adjustment

From the expansions of the tube length the stroke tube phase has to be defined:

H=

±

h tube

(mm)

2

From the 1. diagram the inverse function of maximal temperature the adjustment modulus KH (%) can be defined. After it can be calculated the minimum needed stroke:

Hn, min=

h·100

(mm)

KH

The maximal allowable operational sroke:

Hop.allow =

KH·HN

(mm)

100

The HN nominal stroke of the compensator,mm.

The allowable sroke % exploitage rate:

K'H=

H · 100

(%)

Hop.allow

Pressure adjustment

From the 2.diagram the inverse function of maximal temperature the adjustment modulusKD (%) has to be defined:

The minimal needed nominate pressure:

PNmin=

Püz ·100

(MPa)

KD

Put ... is the operational pressure Mpa

The maximal allowable operational pressure:

Pop.allow =

PN· PD

(MPa)

100

Where:

PN ... the nominal prssure of the compensator MPa

The pressure exploitage % rate:

K'D =

Püz· 100

(%)

Pop.allow

Taking to consideration the pressure and stroke exploitage % rate from the 1. diagram the compensator actual duration of life can be defined.

Pre-streching compensators

The compensators are made withhout pre-streching, this means that the compensators can take same dislocation negative and positive direction.

The tubes generally at that time when the generators are fit is do not have the same expansion to negative and positive direction. For this reason the compensator has to be pre-sterched to negative and positive direction in accordance with the operational expansion.

Installation policy

Axial compensators

Because the axial compensators can only take axial excursion, this stress has to be unequivocally assured with the help of straight-in approach. The compensators – if there is any possibility – have to be placed around the fix point. At the same time the compensator has to have two extensional straght-in approach on the other side of the fix point. Is there same sibility to build in around the fix point, than in the tube phase the axial compensator can be built in anywhare. In this case on both ends of the compensator is about 3-4 times as much as the nominate tube diameter, the distance between the two straight-in approach is about 14 times as much. The ranging of the other srtaight-in approach places ha to be done convenctionally.

The compensators provided with inner protection tube, that defines the main streamline that is marked on outside of the compensator with an arrow.

The compensator has to be fit in according to the streamline, if the path is horizontal. When axial fit in a vertical tube the arrow has to point lovówer down always. The 11.-15. figure shows the fitting in of different axial compensators.

Angular compensators

There is no need to fit in angular compensator on its own in the tube system, but in combination with more compensators. These combinations can be made of two, there or four compensators. The angular compensators can balance long, straight tubes. In this case the angular compensators has to be fit in a U shaped arch, using there or four angular compensators. (comment the U shaped arch is not the same with the „U” bend). The 16.-20. figure shows the fitting in angular combinations.

Lateral compensators

The lateral compensators can be fit in one by one or twos in the tube that is bounded by fix points. Fitting in areas lateral branches, connecting-up junctions where in the main tube fix point can not be developed. The movement compensator can be planar and dimensional.

The 21.-24. figure shows some fitting in method.

Universal compensators

The universal compensator generally used at a place where there are vibrations with relative big amplitude. These compensators are rarely used to take heat. Assuring the right operation for the universal compensators the following has to be taken to consideration the fix point build-up, leading the tubes, and the pre-strech.

In case of calculating the own resistance and elastic force the lateral and the the axial stroke has to be taken to consideration. In the type schedule the lateral and the axial elastic costant can be found as well.

The tube leading has to be so the weight of the tube does not charge the compensator.

Attetion!

The material of the compensator wavw –frame is a 18/8 austenite chrome-nickel steel; resists the atmosphere, the oxidizing melting agent and acidic solutions, but does not resist the chloride salt solutions, namely the non oxidizing melting agents (see corrosion schedule).

The system that has been balanced with compensators works well only is that ase whwn the desing and fitting in were done according to the technical directions. In case of demand special condensators can be ordered as well, but we recommend the personal meeting in this case. The measurements and right fitting in the compensators can be found in the following book Dr. Ferenc Pöstyeni: Corrugated iron compensators, that can be bought at ÉTK (Budapest, st. S .Rumbach 17/A) bookshop.

In the followings the product generally can be delivered 3 months the oder (our address is on the second page).

2.5 ADJUSTMENT SCHEDULE AND GRAPH

The compensator expectable duration of life in accordance with the KD pressure exploitage and KH stroke exploitage.

 

Duration of life

(full binal stroke)

K`Hstroke exploitage rate(%)

100

80

60

40

20

0

K`D pressure exploitage rate(%)

120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
5

350
650
100
1500
2500
4000
8000
16000
35000
105
3 ·105
8 ·105
1,5 ·106

400
720
1100
1700
3000
5000
10000
20000
55000
1,5 ·105
6 ·105
3 ·106
7 ·106

450
800
1200
2000
3500
6000
13000
30000
80000
2,5 ·105
1,3 ·106
107
1,5 ·108

500
870
1400
2300
4000
7500
16000
40000
1,2 ·105
5 ·105
3 ·10
3 ·107
3,5 ·108

550
840
1600
2600
4500
9000
20000
55000
1,8 ·105
8 ·105
6 ·106
108
108

650
1000
1800
3000
5500
11000
25000
75000
2,5 ·105
1,5 ·106
1,2 ·107
3 ·108
6 ·109

1. diagram

The KH stroke exploitage modulus determination
according to temperature

2. diagram

The KDpressure exploitage modulus determination
according to temperature